Measurement Review:

The goniometer will be the tool you will be required to use if asked to measure a
patient’s ROM. So lets make sure you understand how to properly use the device before
we begin. The goniometer is made up of an axis (the hinge), a stable arm,
and the mobilizing arm.

  1. Axis (AX): The center of the goniometer should always be placed next to the axis of the anatomical joint.
  2. Stable arm (SA): Placed proximal to the anatomical.
  3. Mobile arm (MA): placed distal to the joint and as the name refers will be moving.

Always assure that the patient is in a stable position and to support the extremity being tested.

Before preforming the actual measurement ensure the patient is in a favorable position. Then assist them through the desired motion (PROM), while explaining what you would like them to do. Once you have your goniometer in place, have the subject perform the desired motion unassisted. The below will walk you through the starting position (SP) to have the patient in, as well as, how to position the goniometer.

Subtalar Neutral:

  • Describes the neutral alignment between the subtalar, talonavicular and calacneocuboid joints. 2
  • You can easily explain, palpate, and orient a subject into this position by:
    • palpating both sides of the talus
    • Grasping the forefoot along the metatarsal heads (with thumb and index finger)
    • manipulating the forefoot (side to side) until both side are equally prominent
    • this can be preformed with the subject lying prone or in my opinion the easiest method, having the subject in sitting position (making sure to also control dorsi & plantar flexion).